Very little is known about the Uygur Holy War Organization, but the struggle from which they emerged is well-documented. The Uygurs of Xinjiang province in Southwestern China have long had a complicated relationship with their Communist oppressors in Beijing. At various times throughout their history, the Uygurs, Muslims of Turkish descent, have been able to practice the religion of submission in China. But since the Communists came to power, their disdain for any religion but their own has created an adversarial climate. For example, when local Party officials refused to allow a mosque to be constructed in Xinjiang's capital of Kashgar, Uygur Muslims turned to terrorism in an effort to convince Beijing to grant them autonomy. Bombings and assassinations have plagued Xinjiang ever since. These Muslim terrorists even managed to bomb Beijing three times in 1997.