On the Five Namaz
[Daily Ritual Prayers]
The person who says his five daily prayers must do so in a state of prefect concentration and complete meditation. He must abstain from committing sins such as those of jealousy, pride, or scandalmongering, or eating forbidden foods, drinking alcoholic beverages, or refusing to pay his tithes to the clergy. It is also preferable that he abstain from committing such venial sins as saying his daily prayers while half asleep or holding back his need to urinate, nor should he look up at the sky while praying. On the other hand, he would do well before praying to make sure that he has agate rings on his fingers, that he is properly dressed and well combed, that his teeth are brushed, and that he is perfumed.
While he is performing his five daily prayers, a man must make sure that, even if they cannot be seem, his genitals and his rear are covered. It is better if he covers the whole part of his body from the navel to the knees.
A woman, while saying her five daily prayers, must cover her entire body, including her head and her hair; however, it is permissible for her to leave uncovered a part of her face and hands and her feet up to the ankles.
If a man should discover, while saying his prayer, that his member is not covered, he must cover it immediately, and if that takes too much time, he must stop his prayer and start over from the beginning. But if he discovers that his member is not covered only after completing his prayer, the prayer remains valid.
During daily prayer, it is permissible to cover one's body and genitals with grass or the leaves of trees, but it is better to do this only when there are no other means at hand.
During joint prayer, the woman must position herself behind the man. If the woman and the man enter the place of worship at the same time and the woman happens to find herself in front of the man, she must say her prayer again after placing herself where she belong, i.e., behind the main.
It is highly recommended to avoid eating at the same table as one who does not attend the mosque; one must also avoid asking the advice of such a one, living near him, marrying a woman of his family, or giving him one's daughter in marriage.
It is forbidden to say one's daily prayers in the following places: a bath; saline ground; facing someone else; facing an open door; on a highway, avenue, or street; before a fireplace or lamp; in the kitchen and any other place where there is an oven; in front of a well or cesspool; facing a portrait or statue of a living model, unless these are covered; in the presence of someone who has ejaculated and has not yet performed his ablutions; in a room in which there is a photograph, even if it is not located facing the person praying; facing a grave, or on a grave, or between two graves in a cemetery.
It is not advisable to allow a feebleminded person, a child, or someone who has just eaten garlic into the mosque.
One who falls asleep while saying his prayer must say it over again if he realizes he dozed during the prayer; if he is not sure of having done so, the prayer remains valid.
Coughing, belching loudly, or sighing does not invalidate a prayer. On the other hand, the prayer is voided if one emits interjections of two letters or more.
If a person who is praying turns red in the face from suppressing an impulse to burst out laughing, that person must start the prayer over again.
If a person sobs aloud while praying because of some earthly sorrow, the prayer is invalid; but if he weeps to himself, the prayer is valid. However, if it is not over an earthly sorrow but because of the fear of Allah or the hereafter, he is urgently encouraged to weep.
Clapping one's hands or jumping up in the air during a prayer makes it null and void.
If, during prayer, one swallows bits of food left over between one's teeth, the prayer is not invalidated; but if one has a piece of sugar in his mouth and the sugar slowly melts during the prayer, the value of the latter is debatable.
During prayer, one must avoid bending one's head to the right or left, closing one's eyes, clasping one's hands, spitting, toying with one's beard, looking at the writings of the Qur'an or any other writings, or at the design of a ring. One must also avoid praying hen one feels sleepy, when one feels an urge to urinate or defecate, or when one is wearing socks that are too tight.